IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination)
This is the method by which processed semen is placed directly in the uterus with the help of a catheter
IVF (Invitro Fertilization)
IVF means fertilization of an ovum outside the body and consequently, the transfer of the fertilized ovum (embryo) into the uterus of the woman.
ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection)
ICSI is the technological breakthrough in the field of IVF which is used to overcome the inability of sperm to fertilize an egg. In this technique, a single sperm is directly injected into the cytoplasm of an egg in order to achieve fertilization.
TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration)
Embryo Freezing
Embryos can be Cryo-preserved at ultra low temperatures for many years. These frozen embryos can be used subsequently, without the need for ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval.
Sperm freezing
Sperm can be stored frozen at ultra low temperatures for a longer duration which could be helpful in a variety of circumstances - semen freezing prior to chemotherapy, inability of the male partner to be present or to deliver the semen on the day of IUI/IVF

Some Facts

Fertile period
One should know the process of fertilization and fertile days while trying to achieve pregnancy. If a woman has regular menstrual cycles, sexual relationship between the 8th & the 20th day will help.

Causes of subfertility: Both men and women can be subfertile. 1/3 of the time the diagnosis is due to female causes, 1/3 of the time it is linked to male problems, and the remaining cases of subfertility are due to a combination of factors from both partners. For approximately 20% of couples, the cause cannot be determined.

Effect of age: Women are born with a finite number of eggs. Thus, as the reproductive years progress, the number and quality of the eggs diminish. The chances of having a baby decrease by 3% to 5% per year after the age of 30.
Female problems
- Damage to fallopian tubes: Damage to the fallopian tubes (which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) can prevent contact between the egg and sperm.

- Hormonal causes. Some women have problems with ovulation. Synchronized hormonal changes leading to the release of an egg from the ovary and the thickening of the lining of the uterus in preparation for the fertilized egg do not occur.

- Cervical causes. A small group of women may have a cervical condition in which the sperm cannot pass through the cervical canal, this problem may be treated with intrauterine inseminations (IUI)

- Uterine causes. Abnormal anatomy of the uterus; the presence of polyps and fibroids.

- Unexplained subfertility. The cause of subfertility in approximately 20% of couples will not be determined using the currently available methods of investigation.
Male Causes
Pre-testicular causes
  Pre-testicular factors refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including:
- Obesity
- Drugs, alcohol, smoking
- Medications that decrease sperm motility
- Genetic abnormalities

Testicular factors:
Testicular factors refer to conditions where the testes produce semen of low quantity and/or poor quality despite adequate hormonal support and include:
- Age
- Genetic defects ,cancers, infections, varicocele, injury, radiations

Post-testicular causes:
Post-testicular factors decrease male fertility due to conditions that affect the male genital system after testicular sperm production and include defects of the genital tract as well as problems in ejaculation: How can we treat it? General and Physical examination Semen sample. Oligospermia - decreased number of spermatozoa in semen - Aspermia - complete lack of semen - Azoospermia - absence of sperm cells in semen - Teratospermia - increase in sperm with abnormal morphology - Asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility Blood sample: Common hormonal test include determination of FSH and testosterone levels Treatment Treatments vary according to the underlying disease and the degree of the impairment of the male fertility Testicular-based male infertility tends to be resistant to medication. Usual approaches include using the sperm for intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or IVF with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). With IVF-ICSI even with a few sperm pregnancies can be achieved. Obstructive causes of post-testicular infertility can be overcome with either surgery or IVF-ICSI. Ejaculatory factors may be treatable by medication, or by IUI therapy or IVF.